Fifty years ago the nation and the world mourned together the loss of a baby boy born too soon and too small. His name was Patrick. Patrick was born five and a half weeks early and weighed four pounds, 10 ounces. His lungs were not ready and he suffered from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), the most common illness in the newborn intensive care unit. Babies with RDS struggle to breathe because their immature lungs do not produce enough surfactant, a protein that keeps small air sacs in the lungs from collapsing.